托福听力 TOEFL®Listen

什么是托福听力的结构?

2016-05-31 01:08 From 张艳

对于托福听力考试,学会抓住文章中的主要结构

是我们提高听力的核心和关键!
因为ETS所考察的是大家能否抓住主要内容的能力




自然而然的,我们将考虑到一个问题:
一篇托福听力的lecture或者conversation中的结构到底长啥样?
那么今天就来讲讲,何为“结构”


可以毫不夸张的说,听力中的结构就是一篇文章的逻辑,反应出了这篇文章、这个教授讲话的一以贯之的“灵魂”。听任何一篇文章的时候,我们要注意下面的10点主要结构,因为每个结构都有对应的出题点:


1主题2定义3因果4过程5例子

6转折7强调8列举9比较10总结

王企鹅.gif

首先,并不是说在每篇文章中这10个结构都会出现

不同题材的对话和讲座的侧重点不同
那什么时候标志着文章中出现了某类结构呢?

通过一篇历史类lecture来解答以上疑惑
(节选自TPO8 LECTURE 3)
* 黑体加粗为听力中的关键词


So we’ve been talking about the printing press, how it changed people’s lives, making books more accessible to everyone. More books meant more reading, right?


以上可归为一个层次

we’ve been talking about ...

是说教授以前讲过什么东西

因此这段都是在介绍背景,不需要太多留意



But, as you know, not everyone has perfect vision. This increase in literacy, um, in reading, led to anincrease in demand for eyeglasses. And here’s something you probably haven’t thought of. This increased demand impacted societal attitudes towards eyeglasses.


注意:but是一个非常常见的信号词!

这里but引导了一个转折的结构

提示你后面的内容可得仔细听了~
然后请注意后面这句

它有两个提示词“and”(拖音很长~~)

“here’s something you probably haven’t thought of.”

感受一下“有一些事情你们可能从没有思考过”

这个长句是一种强调结构

表明后面的话很重要!


的时光.webp.jpg

But, first let me back up a bit and talk aboutvision correction before the printing press. And, um, what did people with poor vision do, I mean, especially .......?


let me talk about.....

典型的主题引出句

那么这块儿的结构即为该篇的主题


*如果不放心,我们可以利用主题结构的特点来进行验证:通篇听完教授说的最多的才是主题。只在开头,中间,或者只在结尾讲一次的,都不是主题!!


继续,这里“before”很重要

它引出了我们所说的十种结构中的“过程

那么对于这类结构,它是历史话题中的难点

beforeafter都是该结构的提示词!

很大可能会出排序题!

需要留意做笔记,记录顺序!


Well, they haddifferent ways of dealing with not seeing well. If you think about it, poor vision wasn’t their only problem. I mean, um, think about ....... So in some places, um, like ancient Greece for example, the wealthiest people with poor vision could have someone else read to them- easy solution if you could afford it.


Another solution was something called a “reading stone”. .....  But rocks like quartz, well, quartz of optical quality weren’t cheap. Late in the 13th century, glass makers in Italy came up with a less expensive alternative. They made reading stones out of clear glass. And these clear glass ......... 


Different ways绝对是以上这部分的核心关键词

但是仔细思考下我们有必要在笔记上记下这两个单词吗?

答案是当然不用!因为这部分是在“列举”!

因为different ways是一种列举提示词!

它的意思是提醒你:

后面将说到的各种不同的ways 才是你需要着重抓的题点!

要记笔记!


*类似的表示列举结构的提示词还有: three methods/ two solutions.......


发生的.webp.jpg


But it’s not clear who exactly invented them first or exactly what year. But record shows that they were invented in both Europe and Chinaat about the same time. By the way, we call this “independent discovery”. Independent discovery .... .....


一个又一个的but告诉我们要转折!

并且这里有一个强调结构:
record shows that ..... 是一个“强调”提示词
实践证明,讲座或对话里出的细节

(就是大家摸不着头脑的细节题),