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【微分享】Dogs如何成为人类最好的朋友?

2016-06-19 21:32 From 张艳

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How dogs became man's best friend


01


Ancienthumans made dogs their best friend not once but twice, by domesticating twoseparate populations of wolves thousands of miles apart in Europe and Asia.

翻译:远古人类通过分别驯化欧亚两端千里之隔的两种狼,使狗不止一次的成为人类最好的朋友。


That is the conclusion of scientists who said on Thursday they had used modern geneticsto unravel canine evolutionary history, revealing a deep internal split betweendogs from opposite ends of the Eurasian continent.

翻译:这就是科学家们的结论,是在周四通过现代基因分析法阐明狗的进化路线而得出的,它揭示了来自欧亚大陆两端的狗之间存在着较大的内在差异。


分析句子成分:

that is the conclusion为主干部分,

who引导定语从句修饰scientists,而该定从中又套着一个宾语从句,

逗号后的revealing...修饰整个主干句子,对主句进一步进行解释。


词汇进阶:

fromopposite ends of 截然相反的



02


"Ourdata suggests that dogs were domesticated twice, on both sides of the OldWorld,"

翻译:我们的数据表明狗被驯化了两次,并且是分别在旧世界的两端。


"This suggests that at least two groups of humans independently came to the sameconclusion: dogs can be domesticated. It also suggests that the process of domestication, while mostly rare, may be replicated more often than we think."

翻译:这表明,至少两组人各自独立来分析:狗可以驯化。这也表明,驯化的过程中,而大多是罕见的。


词汇进阶:

come toconclusion: 得出结论

while虽然 尽管

replicate:重复,复制


At somepoint in prehistory, they believe the eastern dogs dispersed with humanmigrants and replaced most of the western ones, so Asian ancestry is now dominantin modern dogs.

翻译:科学家们认为,在史前的某个时期,东部的狗随着人类一起迁徙,并取代了大部分的西部狗,所以在现代狗中大部分祖先都是亚洲来的。


词汇进阶:

disperse分散,扩散,传播


Although it is possible there was only one domestication event in Asia, followed byearly transportation to Europe, the research team argues the lack of archaeological evidence for dogs in the middle of the continent makes this very unlikely.


后半句句子成分分析:

句子主干为the research team argues +从句

从句主干结构:the lack makes this very unlikely .

而of archaeological evidence 修饰lack, for dogs 修饰evidence,in 引导的介词短语修饰dogs。


 


03


What remains unclear is how grey wolves started down the long road that has ended up with today's kaleidoscope of dog breeds from Afghan hounds to Yorkshireterriers.

翻译:仍然不清楚的是,灰狼是如何开始分化的漫漫长路,并且最终成为今天的从阿富汗猎狗到雅克郡小狗这些变化万千的品种。


The idea that it began with a hunter-gatherer picking up a wolf pup and breedingtamer and tamer offspring is probably too simple, according to Greger Larson, agenetics expert in Oxford's archaeology department.

翻译:这一过程以狩猎者在一次狩猎中收养一只狼崽并不断驯化而最终产生现代犬的理论来解释太过于简单。


词汇进阶:

tamerand tamer 越来越驯化的


It'slikely to have been co-evolution. At first a pack of wolves got close tohumans, then humans got used to the wolves and, finally, there would have beensomething more intentional on the part of people.

翻译:这很可能是一次协同进化。最初是一群狼与人类亲近,之后人类习惯了狼的存在,最后一部分人更有目的地去驯养这群狼。